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what is the ideal MMO mixture containing ruthenium and iridium for chlorate production


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Ok, ill keep this breif.

I have found a wholesaler for MMO electrodes.
They are prepared to offer me a free 3x2" electrode for testing before i make any kind of purchase.

My question is what is the optimum MMO mixture


I have heard the successful lassered anodes ( of which i have one) are a mixture of ruthenium and iridium, while a study i recently read makes little mention of iridium and says the common DSA MMO electrodes are made of just ruthenium and titanium dioxide.

given these 3 oxides, what is the best combination of any of them for chlorate production? i need at least rough, estimates of the ratio of any 2-3 of these in an MMO so i can get the closest one and then test the lifespan of the anode.


Im fairly confident plain ruthenium based MMO (not containing/based on iridium) will work given thats what is used to commercially produce sodium chlorate, but i need a profssional opinion.


here is the source im basing my current opinions on http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:9242/FULLTEXT01.pdf
the rest is just forum rumor based on the text from laserreds ebay listing "i have been told by my customers that these anodes are a ruthenium/iridium mix"

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From my studies of the past decade, MMO started originally (in the 60's and 70's) as a TiO2 and RuO2 coating. It was functional but later developments included those materials plus other additives (including IrO2) for improved performance in diverse operating conditions.


I'm guessing a hardier MMO is designed to work with low chloride concentrations without degradation (like a high end saltwater pool chlorinater anode, for instance).


Good luck.



Edited by WSM
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This is really one that patents and some deeper research is required . As per chlorate production there is a few mixtures that will work or combination there of. I personally have no idea. But a patent search and some scouring of the electrolysis research may get you a better idea. A lot of the time I believe that companies mask their formulations ,as to keep an edge in the market. I really wish I had some substantial info to help you. Im sure a mixture of those oxides in various mixture will all work for the use in chlorate production . It really comes down to a "lasting " material to take the lethal cell environment its exposed to. Please share your results as you find them. We all can learn from this.

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